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888-895 - Etelköz ( Etelküzü ) - Covenant of Blood

Etelköz, the region situated between the rivers Danube and Dniepr ( on the territory of actual Ukraine ) was the last interim settlement area of the Magyars, before they returned home, to their ancestors' land into the Basin of the Carpathes. Etelküzü area was very important in the life of the Magyars, because it was here the leaders of the 7 tribes concluded the Covenant of Blood, that is why they were called Hét magyarok ( Hetumoger ).

Knowing that difficult and dangerous times lay ahead, the tribal chieftains decided to unite under a single Supreme Chief. There were 108 clans represented by the seven Magyar tribes and the three Kabar tribes that had recently joined with the Magyars. The chiefs assembled under a large tent, with their people as witnesses around its square perimeter. Each chief in turn slit his forearm, and let his blood flow into a cup. Last to contribute his blood was Árpád, their newly chosen leader The táltos (shaman) who presided at this rite mixed wine with the blood that had thus been collected. He then poured a small amount of the mixture onto the ground, sprinkled a few drops north, south, east, and west, and then passed the cup to the chiefs, who drank from it one by one. From this day forward, the shaman declared, "the Magyars, the Huns, and the Kabars shall be one nation indivisible, just as your blood has become one in this cup". Árpád, the chosen Supreme Chief was last to drink from the cup. Thereupon, according to custom: he was raised on a shield and duly installed in his new role as Supreme Chief...

The different interim settlement regions of the Magyars, during returning home - Dentu-Magyaria - Lebedia - Etelköz - Basin of the CarpathesThe Covenant of Blood painted by Káy LajosGreat souzerain Árpád - on the top of the monument in the memorial park of Ópusztaszer
895-896 - Return to the Basin of Carpathes

During the spring and summer of 895, the 7 Hungarian tribes, together with the tribe of the Kabars, all led by Árpád, the Great Souzerain, arrived to the Carpathes.

The 7 Hungarian tribes were namely ( and led by the following chieftains ):

  • Megyer:              Álmos ( main tribe - tribe of Árpád )
  • Nyék:                  Előd 
  • Kürtgyarmat:      Kund
  • Tarján:               Ond
  • Jenő:                  Tas
  • Kér:                    Huba
  • Keszi:                 Tuhutum [ Töhötöm ]

The 7 bastions ( 1 greater and 6 smaller ), nice ornamental elements of the Castle district of Buda symbolize these 7 tribes ( the greater bastion symbolizes the tribe of the Souzerain).

View of the Subcarpathian region from the monument of the pass of VereckeArrival of Hungarians to the Basin of Carpathes - Detail from Feszty cycloramaView of the 7 ornamental bastions of the Castle district
896-907 - Continuous possession of the Basin of the Carpathes

Only in a decade ( 896-907 ), the Magyar tribes had taken in their possession the whole basin of the Carpathes. Árpád's tribes did not find here any kind of serious opposition and did not have serious battles with local population only in the North part of the Carpatian Basin where different Slave tribes lived.

All this is due to the fact, that in the Eastern and Central Part of the Basin of the Carpathes lived those Avar tribes, who were ruling the Basin of the Carpathes from 568 upto 803 and these Avars were the ancestor brother nation of the arriving Hungarians / Magyars.  So the Magyar tribes did not conquer here anybody, but only  returned here home, into the heritage of their ancestors, the Scythians, the Huns, led by the great king Atilla and the Avars.

The settlement of different tribes in the Basin of the CarpathesDaily clothes of Árpád's people
907 ( July 4-7 ) - The Battle of Bratislava - Death of Árpád

Louis, the ruler of the Kingdom of the East Franks and his court watched with an increasing fear the return of the Hungarians to the Basin of the Carpathes. As the East Franks had an influance on the Northwest part of the Basin, he ordered in a decret to destroy and kill all Hungarians: Annalium Boiarum writed "Ugros eliminandos esse". For that reason, he charged Luitpuld, the Bavarian margrave to attack the Hungarians. 

In the Battle of Bratislava/Pressburg (or Battle of Brezalauspurc) Árpád's army completely defeated and liquidated the Bavarians' multiple preponderance, killed Luitpold, his 3 bishops and 19  barons. After this battle the Hungarians occupied the Eastern part of actual Austria, upto the river Enns. In this battle, the Hungarians lost Árpád and several from his sons, but it contributed to strengthen our position in the Basin and nobody dared to attack us for a very long time.

Suzerain ÁrpádSuzerain Árpád and his chieftains on the Heroes Square
907-955 Military campains in Western Europe

Following their victory over the invading Germans in 907, the Hungarians launch a series of punitive and pre-emptive military campaigns in Europe with the objective of preventing the formation of a large powerful united empire in the West, which would represent a serious threat to the security of the Hungarian State, and of recovering the Avar gold treasures pillaged by the invading Germans during the previous century. The Hungarians thus secure their state's position as a great power.

Hungarian Equestrian Warriors
955 ( August 10 ) - The Battle of Lechfeld / Augsburg

In 955, the German Emperor's ( Otto I the Great ) son ( Ludolf ) and son-in-law ( Conrad the Red ) revolted against the Emperor, and invited the Hungarians to help. The Hungarians accepted the invitation. By the time they reached Augsburg ( Germany ), unbeknownst to the Hungarians, Ludolf and Conrad had made peace with Otto. The combined German forces turned against the Hungarian forces and gained the upper hand. After the Hungarians agreed to lay down their arms, despite of it lot of them were massacred, some being buried alive, other sent truncated to home. The leader of the Hungarian campaign was harka Bulcsú, one of the greatest leaders and military tacticians of the 10th century. Bulcsú, and 2 chieftains, Lél (Lehel) and Sur were executed. This defeat in Augsburg marked a turning point in Hungarian foreign policy toward the West. From this point, western military ventures ended.

The Battle of Lechfeld / Augsburg
972-997 Reign of Grand Prince Géza

After the death of his father, Taksony in 972, Géza became the Grand Prince of Hungarians. During his reign the foreign interests gained more and more increasing influence under the guise of Christianization. He was the first ruler who had imposed firm, cruel and sanguinary central control over a people, who had been a strong confederation of great number of clans.

Géza had regularized the relations with the Christian West. He had established a peaceful relationship with holy Roman and German emperor, Otto the Great and ended hostilities with the Byzantine Empire. He was the first to invite missionary priests from Germany to Hungary; yet, he had his son baptised by them. The emperor approved the wedding of his niece Princess Gisella of Bavaria to Duke Géza's son, Stephen.

Grand Prince Géza
997-1038 Reign of Stephen --- 1000-Creation of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom

Stephen, the later St Stephen - who had had the pagan name Vajk until he was baptised in his teens - had been in his early twenties when he succeeded his father Duke Géza (970-997). Promptly, forcefully and with ruthless efficiency he asserted his supremacy over the nation and several obstreperous elder relatives, who disputed his right to the succession (supreme leadership had hitherto been elective by seniority within the ruling family, not by primogeniture).

He then asked for and received a royal crown from Pope Sylvester II - by his choice of patron demonstrating his determination to keep Hungary independent of both the Western and the Byzantine Empires - and with it he was crowned the first King of Hungary in the year 1000, under the name of Stephen I.


Next he set about converting all his people to Western (Latin) Christianity, founding and endowing two Archbishoprics and eight Bishoprics, as well as a number of Benedictine monasteries (which introduced the vine alongside the Gospel). Parish churches were built in towns and larger villages and, to encourage the populace to attend these, St Stephen decreed that markets be held in places with a church, on Sundays (still vasárnap, market-day, in Hungarian).

In recognition of his success, in his lifetime the Pope granted him the title Apostolic King and the right to use the Apostolic double cross. All Kings of Hungary styled themselves Apostolic until 1918, and the double cross is in Hungary's arms to this day.

St Stephen was equally energetic in dealing with secular matters, dividing Hungary into Counties - governed by royal officials, not feudal counts - that disregarded clan boundaries, and organizing defensive fortifications around the country's borders, also entrusted to royal officials. On the other hand, he carefully avoided creating territorially based feudal fiefs, then fashionable in most of Europe. Land was merely held freehold under the Crown, not by feudal vassalage. Moreover, large estates were not single blocks of territory, but numerous small packets of land scattered all over the country.


The crown prince was killed about 24 years old by a boar while hunting. Having no children left, Stephen could not find anyone among his remaining relatives who was able to rule the country competently and willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation. King Stephen offers Hungary in the image of the Saint Crown to the protection of Babba Maria, patron-saint of the Hungarians. After his death nine years of instability followed until Stephen's cousin Andrew I was crowned King of Hungary in 1047 to re-establish the Árpád dynasty.

King Stephen died on the Feast of the Assumption (August 15) in the year 1038 at Székesfehérvár, where he was buried in its cathedral. He was canonized by Pope Gregory VII as Saint Stephen of Hungary in 1083, along with his son, Saint Emeric. In Hungary the feast day of St Stephen is observed on August 20, the day on which his sacred relics (Holy Right) were translated to the city of Buda. This day is a public holiday in Hungary.

Saint Stephen - Click on to see the coronation ceremony of Stephen in the famous rock-opera on YouTube video!King Stephen's equestrian statue in BudaKing Stephen and Queen Giselle on the belvedere of Veszrém CastleKing Stephen offers Hungary in the image of the Saint Crown to the protection of Babba Maria, patron-saint of the HungariansThe Holy Right, the King's right hand
1241-42 Invasion of Mongol Hordes

The Hungarians had first learned about the Mongol threat in 1229, when King Andrew granted asylum to some fleeing Russian boyars. Magyars, left behind during the main migration to the Pannonian basin, still lived on the banks of the upper Volga; in 1237, a Dominican friar, Julianus, set off on an expedition to lead them back, and was sent back to King Bela with a letter from Batu Khan. In this letter, Batu Khan called upon the Hungarian king to surrender his kingdom unconditionally to the Tatar forces or face complete destruction. Bela did not reply. Two more Mongol messages were brought to Hungary: the first, in 1239, by the defeated Cuman tribes, who asked for and received asylum in Hungary, and the second, in February, 1241, by the defeated Polish princes. The fact that king Bela had given asylum to the Cumans tribes, who were regarded as rebels and traitors in the Mongol Empire, saw Hungary as a rival, and the Cuman migration to Hungary as a casus belli to attack on Hungary.

Fight directions of Mongols against Hungarian KingdomIllustration of the Invasion of the Mongols
1301 - Extinction of the Árpád dynasty

In 1301, king Andrew ( András ) III died. With his death, that Árpád dynasty died out which led back the Hungarian tribes into the Basin of the Carpathes from the Etelköz Region.

His death brought a total anarchy inside of the country, the internal serious battles against the different "little kings". This interregnum period had been lasting  7 years, upto 1308, when Charles Robert I ( or Charles I of Hungary ) from Anjou dynasty came to the power.

The House of Árpád gave the Church five saints: Kings Stephen and László, Prince Imre, and the Princesses Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew II, and Margaret, daughter of Béla IV.

Árpád Dynasty tree
1526 ( August 29 ) - The Battle of Mohács

Hungarians long opposed with much success to the expansions of Ottoman Empire on the Southeastern part of Europe.

Louis II of Hungary and BohemiaCommemorative cemetery of the Battle of Mohács
1703-1711 Rákóczi's War for Independence

Rákóczi's War for Independence was the first serious freedom fight in Hungary against agressive and oppressive absolutist Habsburgs.

 After the Ottoman Empire's withdrawal, the Austrian Habsburg take-over of Hungary was met with Hungarian resistance in the 1701-11 War of Independence, but Hungary remained under Habsburg control. Hungary thus became an oppressed, exploited and colonized land as a result of which the Hungarian nation became politically, economically, socially, culturally and demographically marginalized in its own country.

II. Rákóczi Ferenc
1920 ( June 04, 16h32 ) - Trianon treaty - Total execution of a nation

June 04, 1920.  -  16h32  -  Trianon Palace in Paris - Versailles

The TREATY OF TRIANON was one of the cruelest, most absurd treaties ever, and the greatest tragedy in Hungary’s 1000 year history. France and England aimed to completely annihilate the strong power of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, as it was in their imperial interest. Their representatives were concerned only about gaining land and power, and about destroying the Central Powers, and so, the Rumanians were able to manipulate them to support Rumanian interests. In the process, the Allied Powers did not care that a country was dismembered and suffered losses to such extent that it was barely able to function afterward. Because of the scheming and intrigue of the Rumanian delegates and the geopolitical interests of France and England, a biased and unjust treaty was created at the Trianon treaty conferences, causing immeasurable losses to Hungary, political tensions in Central Europe, and widespread persecution and violence against ethnic minorities.

As a result of this treaty, Hungary lost:

- 71.5% of her land
- Transylvania and part of Bánát to Romania (31.4%)
- Southern Hungary Bácska (Vojvodina) and the rest of Bánát to Yugoslavia ( actually in Serbia ) (19.5%)
- Northern Highlands (actually Slovakia) and Carpathian Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia (actually in Ukraine) (19.2%)
- The Western Border Region to Austria (actually Burgerland department) 
- Other small territories to Italy (Port of Fiume) and Poland

- 63% of her population, and half of the Hungarian speaking population
- 1.5 million of these 3.5 million Hungarians were living right along the new borders.
- Cities of almost pure Hungarian population

- Irreplaceable historical monuments, cultural artifacts, churches, and educational and cultural institutions
- 90% of her natural resources, including
- 88% of timber
- 63% of arable land
- 65% of navigable water
- 95% of water power
- Fiume, a port city which was Hungary’s only outlet to sea
- 56% of industrial plants
- 85% of iron
- all gold and silver mines
- all salt deposits
- Hungary’s army was limited to 35 000 volunteers. The navy and air force were disbanded.
- Reparations had to be paid: one part by May, 1921, the rest in 66 semiannual installments.
- Hungary’s livestock and coal was given away to her successor states.

- In comparison, Germany lost only 13% of her land, and Bulgaria, 8%.

Details by Dorottya Sziráki on site

More infos about Trianon:

Hungarian Online Resources
The Treaty
American-Hungarian Federation

Hungary, who defended several centuries Europe from Ottoman occupationHungary before Trianon TreatyTrianonTrianon - Total execution of a nationTrianon  - Total execution of a nationTrianon - To erase Hungary
Regent Miklós Horthy of Nagybánya

Regent Horthy Miklós

Regent Miklós Horthy
World War II
October 23 - November 04 1956 - The forsaken nation

October 23 - November 04 1956 - The forsaken nation

Hungarian Freedom Fighter 1956 - In Time magazin
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